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聚合物粘弹性介绍 英文版 2015-07-04

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聚合物粘弹性介绍 Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity

Third Edition
Montgomery T. Shaw
William J. MacKnight

Preface to the
Third Edition
More than 20 years have passed since the publication of the 2nd Edition of “Introduction to Polymer Viscoelasticity.” Although many of the fundamental aspects of the field remain unchanged, there have been a number of significant developments. Many have to do with instrumentation and the revolution in data collection and analysis, which in no small part has been due to the advent of the
personal computer and the associated progression of nstrumentation of all types.
In recognition of these changes, we have included descriptions of newer techniques for studying molecular motion along with pdated descriptions of the classical experimental methods. An example of the latter is a new appendix that describes in more detail the advantages and disadvantages of the various geometries commonly used for measuring mechanical response. Included are tables with the working equations for these geometries. Those familiar with the
earlier editions will also notice an increased emphasis on shear properties,which is an understandable response to the wide availability of instruments that can measure viscoelastic properties in simple shear. We have also, where possible, changed nomenclature to follow the recommendations of the Society of Rheology, and updated all the figures to increase readability and consistency.
Inexpensive computation hardware along with accessible software has impacted not only the acquisition of viscoelastic data, but also its interpretation.
In the spirit of these changes, the 3rd Edition features many examples and problems that involve numerical modeling and analysis. To relieve the student of the drudgery of data entry, a CD with data files for most numerical problems has been included.
The authors’ experience has shown that by far the most effective way to master the material in the text is to work as many problems as possible, hence the increased emphasis on this aspect in the 3rd Edition. The problems range from relatively straightforward use of an equation included in the book, to far more challenging problems requiring detailed analysis and/or numerical methods. Some of these would even be suitable for term projects. Problems requiring the use of the computer are clearly marked, as are open-ended
problems that have no one “correct” answer. This type of problem, which is required in many undergraduate curricula, provides the student with an opportunity to search, assume, approximate and innovate. As in past editions,answers to many of the problems are provided in an appendix. These answers form an important part of the book, and contain in some cases more details
concerning the subject phenomena.
New topics have been introduced such as interfacial polarization, thermally stimulated currents (TSC), impedance spectroscopy for highly conducting polymers, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation techniques, and the physical relaxation of elastomers. Because impedance spectroscopy has not been used extensively as a tool for examining polymer motion, this short section is included more to explain the similarities and differences between this
spectroscopy and the related dielectric spectroscopy. On the other hand, NMR techniques have undergone rapid development in the last few decades, not only in fields such as imaging and high resolution studies of the structures of biological macromolecules, but also as a tool for studying the relaxation behavior of polymers, particularly in identifying the molecular motions responsible for a given relaxation process. While the new section describing
NMR techniques is necessarily introductory, we have attempted to compare its capabilities with dielectric and mechanical spectroscopy in a direct fashion.
As for other changes, we have with considerable trepidation moved the description of deformation in materials from one to three dimensions. Perhaps the main impetus for doing this was to simplify the rather complex explanation in previous editions of the relationship between tensile and shear properties. As an admitted expense, we now have double-subscripted variables in several
sections. However, we have refrained from including nonlinear strain theory,which should properly be left for more advanced courses.
It is always a difficult task to select material appropriate for inclusion and exclusion in an introductory text of modest size and cost. Because of the discussion of the topics mentioned above and a somewhat expanded treatment of the phenomenology of viscoelasticity, it was felt appropriate to eliminate the chapter on chemical stress relaxation. In its place, a discussion of this topic has been included in the chapter entitled Transitions and Relaxations in Polymers;and, of course, in several problems at the end of this chapter.
Professor Aklonis did not participate in the preparation of the 3rd Edition,but, as was the case with Professor Shen in the 2nd Edition, his influence is clearly present and it is a pleasure for us to acknowledge it.
Many individuals and organizations have been involved with the assembly of the 3rd edition. We wish to thank Ms. Jennifer Chudy and Mr. Alvin A Altamirano for help with data entry and equation editing; Dr. Mark Poliks, Dr.Lou Madsen and Prof. Marcel Utz for critically reviewing the NMR section, Mr.Antonio Senador for checking several problem solutions and Mr. Gerald Ling who provided assistance with the challenging task of finding authors of classical publications for courtesy permission to reproduce figures. We especially want to acknowledge the patience displayed by our spouses, Maripaz N. Shaw and Carol B. MacKnight, as the endured though this lengthy project.
Errors in the text are, of course, the sole responsibility of the authors. It is to be hoped that we have recognized and corrected at least some of the errors in the 2nd Edition, (many of which were pointed out to us by friends and colleagues) and have refrained from introducing a significant number of new ones in the 3rd Edition.
M. T. SHAW
W. J. MACKNIGHT
Storrs, Connecticut
Amherst, Massachusetts
December 2004
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